World Anti Doping Agency in Athletics Articles #1

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Table of Contents

World Anti Doping Agency All Sports As of December 2019

  1. Italy 171
  2. France 128
  3. The United States 103
  4. Brazil 84
  5. Russia 82
  6. China 62
  7. India 57
  8. Belgium 54
  9. Spain 52
  10. South Africa 43

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*I have emailed the World Anti Doping Agency for a list of countries ranked by Doping Offenses for the year 2019.

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World Anti Doping Agency By Sport

  • Body Building 266
  • Athletics 242
  • Cycling 218
  • Football 78
  • Rugby 54

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World Anti Doping Agency Number of Cases

  • 2015 1929 cases
  • 2016 1595 cases
  • 2017 1804 cases

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World Anti Doping Agency Sources:

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2019 February

World Anti Doping Agency Husband of top Commonwealth Games athlete’s sold performance drugs: Panel

In a recent order, the Anti-Doping Appeal Panel blacklisted the unidentified athlete’s husband, Puneet, and another drug supplier, Sunny Malik, based on several anti-drug government agencies’ findings.

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The World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) added Meldonium to its prohibited list on January 1, 2016. (Representational)

An anti-doping panel has blacklisted the husband of a Commonwealth Games athlete for allegedly supplying Meldonium – a banned substance that improves endurance – to the country’s top decathlete, 25-year-old Jagtar Singh.

Also Read: Top youth athletes among 41 who fail the age verification test

The panel’s order was based on information provided by Jagtar, who was a member of the Indian team for the Asian Athletics Championships in 2017 before his name was withdrawn after he tested positive for Meldonium. The banned substance gained notoriety worldwide three years ago in the dope case involving tennis star Maria Sharapova.

“In view of the information disclosed by the athlete, we also direct NADA to blacklist and prohibit the entry of Mr Puneet and Mr .Sunny Malik in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi and any other stadium/facility where national or international sporting activity takes place,” stated the order by the panel, headed by senior advocate of the Supreme Court Vibha Datta Makhija.

World Anti Doping Agency 2019 January Roundup World Athletics – Kalinga likely to be slapped with a lengthy ban Sprinter’s ‘B’ sample too found positive

by Reemus Fernando

World Anti Doping Agency in Athletics Articles #1 1

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Sprinter Kalinga Kumara is likely to be slapped with a lengthy ban after his ‘B’ sample test confirmed a banned substance’s positive result. Sources said that local anti-doping authorities had informed the Sri Lanka Athletics Association about the positive results following Kumara’s ‘B’ sample test.

Kumara was found positive for a banned steroid following a test conducted after his impressive performance at the annual Army Athletics Championship late last year. The sprinter has informed of the result in December, and he went for a ‘B’ sample test this month.

Kumara, formerly coached by reputed sprint coach Sunil Gunawardena produced outstanding performances after he came under Vimukthi de Soysa, who was known largely as a boxing coach. Vinoj Suranjaya, who broke the longstanding national record of Sugath Thilakaratne, and emerging sprinter Nirmali Madushika who also excelled at athletics championships last year, coached by Vimukthi de Soysa as of now.

Vimukthi de Soysa
Vimukthi de Soysa

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Kalinga Kumara became one of the very few Sri Lankan sprinters to have clocked sub 46 seconds in the 400 meters last year when he reached his personal best of 45.99 seconds during the Asian Games in Jakarta.

Sri Lanka Athletics Association officials were banking heavily on Kumara’s likes to form a strong relay team for several international events this year. Kumara was the only athlete to clock sub 21 seconds when he won the men’s 200 meters in a new meet record time at the Sri Lanka Army Athletics championship in October. His performance was milliseconds behind the national record.

An official conversant in anti-doping procedures said that steroid use’s positive results are severely dealt with and accompanied by bans for up to four years.

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Kenya-born Rio marathon silver medal winner banned that’s #4 for Bahrain


World Anti Doping Agency in Athletics Articles #1 2

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Paris – Kenyan-born Bahraini Eunice Jepkirui Kirwa, who won marathon silver at the Rio Olympics in 2016, has been suspended for four years for doping, the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) announced on Monday.

Kirwa had been provisionally banned since May after the prohibited blood-booster EPO was detected in her blood sample.

Her four-year suspension is backdated to May 7, 2019.

The 35-year-old finished second in Rio behind Kenya’s Jemima Sumgong, who was banned for eight years in January for attempting to hinder an investigation into her use of EPO by supplying false documents.

Kirwa, who also won world bronze in Beijing in 2015, can appeal the ban at the Court of Arbitration for Sport.

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According to the list of Ineligible athletes. Kirwa is now the 4th athlete representing Bahrain on a Suspension to do with PEDS.  A few years ago, Rashid Ramzi, who was representing Bahrain, was stripped of the Olympic 2008 1500m Gold tested positive for CERA, an advanced blood doping version of EPO

JEPCHUMBA, Violah 23/10/1990 BRN athlete F Long Distance
27/08/2017 4 years ineligibility 29/09/2021 Since 27.08.17 No Doping Presence, Use EPO

KATUA, Rosemary
10/08/1996 BRN athlete F Long Distance
14/10/2017 3 years ineligibility 02/12/2020 Since 14.10.17 No Doping Presence, Use Norandrosterone

NASIR, Basirah Sharifa 03/08/1999 BRN athlete F Sprints (400m
or less)
06/05/2016 3 years & 6 months
22/01/2020 Since 06.05.16 No Doping Presence, Use Metenolone

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57 Kenyan Athletes Under World Anti Doping Agency Watchlist IAAF

May 18, 2017


World Anti Doping Agency
April 23, 2017
Over the past few years, Kenya’s athletes have come under increasing scrutiny over doping allegations. And with over 40 athletes so far found to have been guilty of the offense, the trend is indeed worrying.

EPO’s positive testing on Jemima Sumgong spells yet another stain on an otherwise enviable era of exploits in the global athletics arena.

The allure for riches in the blink of an eye pushes more and more athletes to abuse these substances. And it will be long before we see the likes of Paul Tergat and et al. That made the country proud without ever being accused of such ignominies.

Our investigative team has come under crucial information that the IAAF has close to 57

Kenyan athletes under investigation. For related doping offenses and surprisingly, Sumgong was on this watch list. Some of the athletes who are under investigation are top-notch athletes. And it’s only a matter of time before the chicken comes home to roost on an inept anti-doping environment in the country.

Kenya is the most tested country by anti-doping officials. And such a high number is allegedly under investigation puts the country’s reputation as an athletic powerhouse at risk.

The below tables explains the number of times Kenyan athletes have been tested both the urine and blood.

The data seen by our investigation team reveals the number of athletes. Who is being tested, and the kind of testing being done? Some of the tests include the standard urine sample and blood-test, which all form part of the out-of-competition testing. During such a test, Sumgong was found to have tested positive for the banned substance EPO.

The table below shows the leading country with tests done on their athletes, and from it, you will find out that Kenya is the leading Nation with tested athletes for Urine and Blood.

Read Full Article Here

Drug Testing in Track and Field
Drug Testing in Track and Field

Drug Testing in Track and Field Sports Essay RESEARCH PROPOSAL

By Andrew Pirie

Sports Performance II

2004, International Pacific College

Topic – Drug Testing in Track and Field Essay:

Drug Testing in Track and Field Essay Objective:

I would like to find out

  • If drug testing in track and field is effective?
  • How is it carried out? What type of drugs can be detected?
  • Are new drugs being developed that cant is detected?.
  • What are the long and short-term effects do these have on Athletes?


Drug Testing in Track and Field Essay Subheadings:

  • How long do drugs stay in the system?
  • What methods are used?
  • How are drugs detected? 
  • Is it difficult to detect performance-enhancing drugs, and what new drugs are difficult to detect?
  • Is it expensive to drug test an athlete?
  • What are the long and short-term effects of athletes who take performance-enhancing drugs?
  • If an athlete takes a drug that stays in the body, which is legal at the time. And the drug is banned 6 months after he has taken it? Can he /she still be tested positive as it was not banned at the start of his consumption?


Drugs Dealt With:

Drug Testing in Track and Field
Drug Testing in Sports Essay

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Contents Drug Testing in Track and Field Essay

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  • Introduction – The Objective of My Research


  • Long and Short Term effects of Drug Users in Sport.
  • Diagram of effects on steroid users.


  • How common are performance-enhancing drugs
  • List of Performance enhancing drugs
  • How long do drugs stay in the system?
  • How long can they be detected?
  • How are drugs detected?
  • Is it difficult to detect drugs?


  • Do politics, commercialization, sponsorship, and marketability affect the punishment of athletes who use performance-enhancing drugs?


  • How are Drugs Detected?
  • How difficult is it to detect performance-enhancing drugs, and what new drugs are difficult to detect?
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix on Drug Testing in Track and Field Procedures in Australia


  • Conclusion

Drug Testing in Track and Field Essay Introduction

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The Objective of my Research was to find out.

  • If drug testing in track and field is effective and how it is carried out?
  • What type of drugs can be detected, and whether new drugs are being developed more difficult to detect?
  • What are the long and short-term effects on athletes?

The Head of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), Dick Pound, states in his book ‘Inside the Olympics: A Behind look at the scenes Look at the Politics, the Scandals and the Glory of the Games’. There are two important issues to consider when looking at the doping controversy in today’s sport.

Drug Testing in Track and Field
Dick Pound, Drug Testing in Track and Field

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Firstly it harms the athletes. And secondly, it is against the spirit of sport. Because cheating destroys the mystical quality that gives sport its appeal. Furthermore, many examples haunt sporting history.

As a result, these scandals rewrite the record books and return medals, and trophies won unfairly.  As a result, this essay will examine the physical effects on athletes and the methods used in drug testing in track and field.

American President George Bush made his message clear:

Get tough and get rid of drugs in sport.


What are the long and short-term effects of athletes who take performance-? Enhancing drugs?

Due to the oxygen storage blood-boosting of EPO. A cyclist suffers a heart attack. At the same time, a drug-expanded body-builder becomes deeply depressed. (This is an extreme example).

Consequently, in East Germany, drugs caused gender-bending. At the same time, Drugs were given to too many athletes without their knowledge. And any concern for consequences after the medals were won. Most noteworthy is one well-known case with the then female now male East German shot-putter ‘Hormone Heidi.’

Yet Athletes quite frequently do similar physiological activities. Consequently, that has the same effects as performance-enhancing drugs and blood-doping agents. Since they train at high altitude, spending long hours there. Besides, David Beckham did this to accelerate a broken leg’s rapid healing before the 2002 soccer World Cup. If drugs have the same effects as totally legal and frequently practiced activities by athletes, what makes them any different?

Also, statistics show many people take drugs as a shortcut to avoid difficult and rigorous training.

Drug Testing in Track and Field
Drug Testing in Track and Field

Taking Steroids can lead to

Drug Testing in Track and Field
Drug Testing in Track and Field Essay

How Common are Steroids?

While it is estimated that 6% of men and 1.4% of women in gyms in the USA regularly use steroids, even more, concerning is the use of drugs by children who don’t know how to use them properly. And who are still developing physically and mentally? Therefore it is estimated 2.5% of 13-14-year-olds in the USA use steroids.

Especially relevant, a program called “Start clean” has begun in the USA to stop kids using steroids. While presumably, this means that if drugs are so accessible, not only the public but also children can obtain them. Also, a lot of companies are seeing sport and higher-paid professional athletes as a potential target market.


List of Performance Enhancing Drugs?

  •  Anabolic Steroids (pills, tablets, intramuscularly injected, steam)
  • Taken in stack combo different types of steroids.
  • Testosterone
  • (HGH) Human Growth Hormone
  • Designer Drugs
  • EPO
  • THG (Tetrahydrogestine)
  • Gene-Altering Drugs (coming soon)

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How Long Do Drugs stay in the System?

Drugs stay in the system anywhere between three months to a year, depending on the dosage that has been taken. While the length of time that steroids stay in the body varies. As a result, Injected steroids may be detected in the body for 3 to 4 months. At the same time, the oral types may remain for 1 to 4 weeks. Simultaneously, the most popular substances like nandrolone (deca, testosterone) can be detected for one year usually.  Also, injectable testosterone usually is Between 3-6 months.

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How long drugs can be detected in the system.

Most noteworthy, these detection times were taken from different sources. While this table is for informational purposes only. This website will not be held responsible if you are caught on a drug test. Therefore this isn’t medical advice. Hence only information gathered from various sources


Drug Testing of Middle Schoolers


– Nandrolone deaconate


18 months



– Nandrolone phenylpropionate


12 months




– Boldenone undecylenate

– methenolone enanthate

– trenbolone

– trenbolone acetate

– Injectable methandienone



5 months




– Testosterone-mix (Sustanon & Omnadren)

– Testosterone enanthate

– Testosterone cypionate



3 months




– Oxymetholone

– Fluoxymesterone

– injectable stanozolol

– former lone

– drostanolone propionate



2 months




– methandienone

– mesterolone

– Ethylestrenol

– Norethandrolone



3 weeks




– Oxandrolone

– Oral stanozolol



3 weeks




– Testosterone propionate


2 weeks




– Testosterone undecanoate


1 week




– clenbuterol


4 days




How Long do steroids stay detectable in your system, Date accessed November 27, 2004

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drug testing in track and field essay: How are Drugs Detected?

Most noteworthy, In the 1970s, a new method in detecting steroids was developed, known as Chromatography. The blood and urine sample is analyzed for any unusual material. Simultaneously, the difficulty is that this method takes several days, sometimes weeks, to analyze the sample. And by the time the results come through, the medals have already been awarded to the athletes.

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How difficult is it to detect performance-enhancing drugs, and what new drugs are difficult to detect?

Especially relevant to a new drug that alters genes is being invented, which is impossible to detect. At the same time, It is designed to rebuild muscles from muscle-wasting diseases. And could be used by athletes to generate muscles and allow extreme rapid muscle growth. Therefore Gene Altering Drugs will be almost impossible to detect as no traces are in the blood and urine. Also, there are drug-resistant, staph skin infections.

Drug Testing in Track and Field

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Do politics, commercialization, sponsorship, and marketability affect the punishment of athletes who use performance-enhancing drugs?

Drug Testing in Track and Field
Ben Johnson. World Anti Doping Agency

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British Tennis star Greg Rudeski escaped a drug ban in 2004 for Nandrolone. Because he had tested positive for Nandrolone. As a result, the tennis star argued he had taken the steroid without his knowledge. And that his sports drink has been spiked by officials of the ATP (Association of Tennis Professionals).

Furthermore, in June 2003, a syringe containing hitherto unknown & undetectable tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) was sent to the American anti-doping agency ( USADA) by a disaffected coach.

Also, THG was a widespread drug made by BALCO (The Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative) as a ‘nutritional’ supplement.

Most noteworthy, its clients Included 100m world record holder Tim Montgomery. (soon to be stripped of his world record (9.78) and facing a lifetime ban from Track and Field, his record going back to Maurice Greene). And had he qualified for the USA Olympic team, it would have caused embarrassment for USA Track and Field. At the time, Montgomery was soon to be put on trial for the biggest performance-enhancing drug trials in sporting history.

While Montgomery’s partner 2000 Olympic Women’s 100m Champion Marion Jones was allowed to compete at the Olympics. Even though she faced a similar accusation, having had the same coach, Trevor Graham. Graham is believed to have been doping up his athletes. While CJ Hunter Jones’ former husband admitted, they both took drugs together before Sydney. And he even injected his ex-wife consensually with steroids. Former shot-putt champion Hunter was banned for using steroids.

As a result, it appears athletes face different punishments for political reasons relating to the sports organizations. Consequently, USA Track and Field was glad that Tim Montgomery had already tested positive for steroids three times. (the legal amount of times you may test positive for drugs according to the IAAF). I had not qualified for the Olympic Games as mentioned before; he was on trial.

While USA Track and Field included Marion Jones for the Olympics.

Yet she had avoided being tested, and luckily for them, she only finished 5th. Especially relevant after her performance at the Olympic trials, she was unlikely to gain a gold medal at the Olympics in Athens 2004.

Hence she did not gain a medal of any color, not even a bronze.

Therefore the US Olympic committee could breathe a sigh of relief. In conclusion, they had to include her in the line to reduce the controversy of all their athletes being on drugs.

Also tested positive in the largest doping bust in sports history was Barry Bonds. (Baseball record holder for most runs in a season), Shane Moseley (Former World Boxing Champion). And several members of the Oakland Raiders AFL Team.

In conclusion, BALCO Boss Victor Conte is now being accused of laundering money and trafficking illegal drugs.

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How expensive is Drug Testing in Track and Field?

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World Anti Doping Agency

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It cost about $280 in the US to buy a drug testing in track and field kit for each athlete at the Asian Track and Field Championships in Manila 2003. Almost 40 kits were purchased, and athletes were tested randomly. In conclusion, this is unreliable. I think all athletes should be tested before the competition. Therefore drug cheats can be caught before they are awarded medals. And cannot escape the drug test.

Juan Antonio Samaranch. The President of IOC once advocated the legalization of non-harmful performance-enhancing drugs, which caused outrage amongst the global sporting community. At the same time, he did this for the IAAF to save money. Hence claimed it was a way of more easily solving the problem of drug cheats. While not being concerned about the unfair advantage, it would give them over clean athletes. And instead, worry about their own well being.

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If an athlete takes a drug that stays in the body, which is legal at the time, and the drug is banned six months after s/he has taken it, can s/he still be tested positive as it was not banned at the start of his consumption?

Drug Testing in Track and Field

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Major sporting organizations such as the IOC (International Olympic Committee) and IAAF (International Amateur Athletics Federation) takes this factor into account.

And advises the athletes to stop taking the substances from when they are banned.

Hence judging by the table above, the athlete is given a set amount of time to be cleaned from the drug.

Therefore he/she is still competing with a legal performance-enhancing drug.

And continues to be legal for him/her alone until the drug runs dry from their system.

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Drug testing in track and field CONCLUSION

Drug Testing in Track and Field

Drug testing in track and field is developing, but so are the athletes. Most noteworthy like viruses and diseases develop to overcome and become immune to medicine. As a result, it’s quite an alarming fact that companies such as ‘BALCO Labs’ are aiming to make money off athletes. And develop ways to overcome drug tests. Hence new drugs are being developed. At the same time, athletes who take these new drugs will not be detected. Testers can develop ways to monitor these new designer drugs.

Gene doping could become almost impossible to detect. Hence, in the long run, I think drug testing in track and field is a good way to keep the sport clean. While some drugs only harm the athletes in the long term. And a lot of performances enhancing drugs are so new that we don’t even know the long-term effects of them on athletes.

Also, the image of the sport as a clean sport must be preserved in any way possible. Therefore it is an unfair advantage due to having an unlimited amount of money on the stock market. Hence, it will dissuade other athletes from being on drugs because other athletes will train hard and never get as near to the athletes who still train hard and take drugs. (athletes who take drugs still need to train just as hard, and drugs enable them to train harder).


  • stack – combo of steroids
  • pyramiding – increase doses in cycles.
  • (by the end of the cycle some users take up to 10x the medical recommended amounts)


  • men -decrease naturally produced testosterone
  • shrinking of testicles
  • reduced sperm count
  • acne
  • bad breath
  • swollen feet

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Other Related Links

Drugs and Athletics Archives (includes statistics)

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Interim Report: Drugs in Sport

Drugs in Sport








  • Cover Page
  • Cartoon

Objectives of Research?

  • I would like to determine if drug testing in sports is effective and how it is carried out.
  • What type of drugs can be detected, and are new drugs being developed that cant is detected.
  • What are the long and short term effects do these have on Athletes

World Anti Doping Agency

Research Questions 

  • How long do drugs stay in the system?
  • How are drugs detected? What methods are used?
  • How difficult is it to detect performance-enhancing drugs, and what new drugs are difficult to detect?
  • How expensive is it to drug test an athlete?
  • What are the long and short-term effects of athletes who take performance-enhancing drugs?

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Thoughts to Ponder?

  • ?If an athlete takes a drug that stays in the body, which is legal at the time. And the drug is banned 6 months after he has taken it? Can he /she still be tested positive as it was not banned at the start of his consumption?
  • Does Politics, Commercialization, sponsorship, and marketability affect the punishment of athletes who use performance-enhancing drugs?
  • Athletes gain similar benefits from activities that have similar physiological effects to performance-enhancing drugs such as altitude training.

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List of Performance Enhancing Drugs? 

  • Anabolic Steroids (pills, tablets, intramuscularly injected, steam)
  • Taken in stack combo different types of steroids.
  • Testosterone
  • (HGH) Human Growth Hormone
  • Designer Drugs
  • EPO
  • THG (Tetrahydrogestine)
  • Gene Altering Drugs (coming soon)

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How Long Do Drugs stay in the System? 

Anywhere between 3 months to a year. Depending on the dosage taken.

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How are Drugs Detected?

  • 1970’s Chromatography New Method Detecting Steroids
  • Blood and Urine samples analyzed for any unusual material take days.

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How difficult is it to detect performance-enhancing drugs? And what new drugs are difficult to detect?

  • An estimated 6% of men and 1.4% of women in gyms in the US use steroids.
  • A new drug that alters genes is being invented, which is impossible to detect. Designed to rebuild muscles from muscle wasting diseases but could be used by athletes to generate muscles.
  • Gene Altering Drugs will be almost impossible to be detected.

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How expensive is it to a drug test?

  • It costs about $20 in the US to buy a drug testing kit for each athlete at the Asian Track and Field Championships. 40 kits were purchased, and Athletes were tested randomly

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What are the long and short-term effects of athletes who take performance-enhancing drugs?

drug testing in sports essay


Thank you

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Drugs and Athletics Statistics (rev 1)


This article is by Greg Jericho. But when watching athletics at the Olympics. Consequently, one thing sadly hovers above it all. And it hovers so close to the track that it is even included in the Olympic Oath. Which supposedly binds all competitors.

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In the name of all the competitors, I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honor of our teams.

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Doping helps Women more than Men

The “doping” aspect was added in the 2000 Olympics. And that it needs to be stated says much. The long-term impact of doping during the 1970s and 1980s is greater on women’s athletics than men’s. Consequently, doping on women has a greater physiological impact. Hence while a man might break a world record through doping, his time or distance will not be far ahead of a clean athlete. As would the respective woman cheats over her clean competitors.

So a lot of the world records set by women are during the 1980s. And when doping was rampant and out-of-competition testing non-existent. These remain on the books and, for the most part, far beyond contemporary athletes’ reach. 

Hormone Heidi
Hormone Heidi started as a woman but ended up transgressing into a male due to the high number of Steroids in the GDR SystemWorld Anti Doping Agency.

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steroids. World Anti Doping Agency

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We do not know how many aspiring athletes fail to make the grade despite trying various untested drugs or perhaps even see their health and performance decline as a result.

*amateurs drugs, fail to make the grade, decline health

There was good reason to think testosterone would work because it is one of the very few drugs where scientific trials have tested its effect on young men’s performance. But the latest studies reveal just how little we know. Even though the study was microscopic and lasted only six weeks. It threw up a surprise testosterone works even faster than thought. The biggest increase in performance occurred after just three weeks.

The side effects observed were minimal, but the study would not have got ethical approval if there was any serious risk to the athletes involved. This form of testosterone has already been tested on thousands of men as a potential male contraceptive.

We still do not know exactly how testosterone boosts muscle size or how long its effects last. Does an athlete who takes testosterone or other anabolic steroids for a few weeks still have some residual advantage years later?

A recent survey by the University of Michigan estimated that last year, 3.5 percent of teenagers in the US used anabolic steroids regularly.

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Steroids/Testosterone boost performance in three weeks. (According to Robert Weatherby of Southern Cross University in Lismore, NSW, Australia.

That might explain how some athletes dodge drug tests. Taking testosterone for short periods only, taking smaller doses, or doing both would reduce the chances of getting caught.

“Athletes have probably already figured this out and we are just confirming that scientifically”, says Randall Urban of the University of Texas at Austin, who has studied the effects of testosterone on older men.

“Testosterone use is rampant in the sport. “Says Christiane Ayotte of the Montreal Doping Control Laboratory in Canada.

“We may only be catching 10 percent of those using the drug.” Says David Cowan of the Drugs Control Center at King’s College London.

The first rigorous study of testosterone’s performance-enhancing effects in young men was not carried out until 1996. Volunteers were given weekly injections of either 600mg of testosterone or a placebo for 10 weeks (bodybuilders usually take much larger doses). Results showed that the hormone had improved muscle size and strength in those doing strength training and, to a lesser extent, those who did not exercise.

Before the thought that testosterone must be injected weekly for at least 10 weeks.

In another test in 2001, Weatherby monitored 18 male amateur athletes’ performance over a six-week training regime. Nine were given weekly shots of testosterone enanthate at a dose of 3.5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight for six weeks (equivalent to half the dose of the 1996 trial)

According to tests after 6 weeks, those on testosterone seemed to become less empathic and considerate towards others.  (UK Channel 4 by New Scientist)

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World Anti Doping Agency

World Anti Doping Agency

Testing for testosterone is difficult. With synthetic steroids, all you to do is prove their presence. But because testosterone is a natural hormone, testers usually have to rely on a few tricks.

The standard method is to measure the ratio of active and inactive testosterone in an individual’s urine, called the TE ratio. On average, this ratio is 1. When people take big doses, the time it takes for the TE ratio to return to normal people comes off the hormone depends on the size of the doses and how they were taken for – it can be several months.

Until 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency, which issues global regulations on drug abuse in sport, only regarded a TE ratio above 6 as suspicious. Last week net regulations came into effect that recommends investigating any abnormal level of testosterone, however low.

If athletes have learned by trial and error to use low doses for short periods only, there is less chance of being caught? According to Cowan and Ayotte, we need to collect data on athletes frequently and over a long period of time to build up testosterone profiles.

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Human Growth Hormone

Tim Montgomery
Tim Montgomery. World Anti Doping Agency

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Athletes at Athens tested for HGH. IOC originally wanted tests ready for the 2000 Olympics. A well-funded international research effort called GH2000 came up with the basis for a test; progress has been slow since then.

The synthetic growth hormone was developed to treat children whose growth is stunted due to a natural version. The hormone is thought to build muscles and shed fat in normal adults, not proved.

HGH was banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), still no effective tests. (World 100m record holder Tim Montgomery testified to it).

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Two potential tests

  • Developed by C.J. Strasburger relies on the fact that the pituitary gland produces various forms of the hormone in predictable ratios. By contrast, artificial growth hormone consists largely of one form. The downside is that the test can detect the hormone up to 36 hours after it’s taken.
  • Works up to 2 weeks after the hormone is taken, it looks for two chemicals in the blood that increases in response to artificial growth hormone, but not after normal exercise. IGF-1 is part of the cascade of signaling molecules that tells our muscles to bulk up, while P-III-P is a short protein sequence that is snipped off when collagen is deposited in muscles. “They get up to levels that you don’t see in normal people.” Says Peter Sonksen of St Thomas’ Hospital in London, who led the GH2000 team.

World Anti-Doping Agency website

World Anti Doping Agency

Drugs in Athletics

Canadian Sprinter Ben Johnson

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While for Usain Bolt, the specter of drugs is different. And he does not need to worry about not surpassing tainted records, for he has obliterated them already.

In 1988, Ben Johnson ran 9.79 secs for 100m.

That time would have seen him finish a good two meters behind Bolt in his world record run in Berlin in 2009 of 9.58 secs. 

And so when I watch Bolt run, I must admit I marvel in delight at his ability, but I also utter a small prayer that he is not on drugs.

Most noteworthy is that the impact of doping controls on men’s athletics has not had as much an effect on women. And it is still noticeable that fewer records are set now than in the past:

you can read the full, fascinating article here.

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IAAF ready to return to four-year doping bans on the eve of world athletics championships

List of Major League Baseball players suspende...
Drugs in Athletics  (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Athletics is set to reintroduce four-year doping bans even though the move risks alienating the sport from the World Anti Doping Authority (WADA), officials said on the eve of the world championships.

The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) will vote to set in motion a return to four-year bans for first offenders. So following representations from leading former athletes, And in the wake of a series of damaging doping cases.


“They will vote tomorrow,” Britain’s marathon world record holder Paula Radcliffe, long an outspoken critic of doping. and now a member of the IAAF’s athlete’s commission said at a briefing in Moscow.


“Unfortunately, legally, there can’t be lifetime bans but this is a step in the right direction.”


While doping is the subject on everyone’s lips ahead of the August 10-18 championships following a series of high-profile recent positive tests. Most noteworthy leading sprinters American Tyson Gay and Asafa Powell of Jamaica.

Read the Full article here
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Athletes Face Drug-Resistant Staph Skin Infections
By Daniel Yee
Associated Press Writer


Health and sports officials are warning schools and sports teams about a hard-to-treat skin

infection once common to hospitals and prisons that are now plaguing athletes on the playing field.

So The National Federation of State High School Associations sent a warning Tuesday to states about a staph infection that can’t be cured by the usual penicillin-related antibiotics.

While on Monday, the NCAA’s medical committee urged college athletic departments to be alert for the infections. And to practice careful hygiene. While usually mild, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can progress to life-threatening blood or bone infection.

So several athletes who got the infection have been hospitalized. While The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said the infection, which can look like an ordinary skin wound or a boil. Consequently is often not diagnosed or ends up being treated with antibiotics that can’t cure it.

While Symptoms include fever, pus, swelling or pain.”It’s important for coaches and for parents to be aware MRSA might be a cause of skin problems in children,” said Dr. Dan Jernigan, CDC medical epidemiologist. 

And athletes should tell their coaches of any wounds, which should be covered. So if a wound can’t be covered, the player should be excluded from the sport until he gets appropriate treatment or the wound heals, Jernigan said.

While most often affected are those playing close-contact sports. And in one case, fencing was involved.

“It’s not uncommon in contact sports such as football and wrestling where we have contagious skin conditions,” said Jerry Diehl, assistant director for the high school federation.

He said proper equipment cleaning is needed to prevent the infections. The CDC also recommended

  • avoiding contact with other players’ skin lesions
  • better hygiene
  • no sharing of towels or personal items.

While NCAA spokeswoman Kay Hawes said Wednesday, the universities’ alert was to make them aware of potential problems.

“The NCAA alerts the membership any time there’s a health and safety issue where we could prevent a problem or concern.” The last such announcement was about the SARS virus.

While Earlier this month, a 17-year-old high school football player in Wisconsin was hospitalized with MRSA, and six of his teammates also were treated. Also in August, seven.

University of Southern California football players were infected. And four were hospitalized.

The CDC noted that five Colorado fencers were infected in February. Team members shared sensor wires. The CDC said that record hits by an opponent’s weapon, under their clothing, and the wires were not regularly cleaned.

While in January, a pair of Indiana high school wrestlers were infected; last year, two college

football players were hospitalized with the infection; and in 2000, 10 Pennsylvania college

football players were infected, the CDC added.

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Drugs in sprinting

Continued from Article Drug in Sports Testing. I did not write the following material below just found it from another source; a lot of it may now be outdated. Also, read up on the Drug in Athletics archive.

Providing a background to all the pointing fingers and the whole ‘speculated’ cover-up since the 1988 Ben Johnson performance-enhancing drugs in sprinting bust. This article will cover various drugs in sprinting cases.

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Drugs in Sprinting  – Ben Johnson

Drugs in Sports 
ben johnson

We will start in 1988 when Ben Johnson was caught with performance-enhancing drugs in his system, and the whole world felt vindicated that the Mike Tyson of Track was bust.

  • Hooray .. something had been achieved.
  • And the man showed no remorse, saying that everyone else was doing it.
  • Rumors abounded regarding the big coverup that was taking place amongst the officials
    of the sport.
  • The rumor is that they were too afraid to uncover the truth regarding the extent
  • of drugs in sprinting because it would affect them through the loss of sponsorship.


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They would lose their many perks

Johnson was thought to be expendable, as he wasn’t considered good for the sport. He was aggressive and did not fit the role of the image officials considered ‘good.’

Here are some home truths …

Linford Christie was caught and let off … people said that he portrayed an image that was good for the sport and its sponsors.

There is no hiding the fact that he was bust … Very similar to Jeffrey Archer, he won a court case against a journalist who accused him of drug abuse.

Take a look at what Christie looked like when he first came onto the scene.

Any comments on this before we move on … Christie was again bust for drug use; however, he had retired and decided not to challenge the 2-year ban.

During the Sydney 2000 Olympics, he was not allowed anywhere near the athletic facilities in that country …

What do the Brits do … they make him team Manager of an Athletic Team.

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Carl Lewis drugs

In 1988 after Ben Johnson declared that they were all taking ped drugs. The people blacklisted Johnson and tried to push him into the background. Out of sight, out of mind.

This year 2003, it was disclosed that Carl Lewis’s drugs tested positive for a substance in 1988, but it was not deemed serious enough to pursue. So they say. The only thing in Lewis’ favor is that he is not muscled like the rest of the gorillas.

Also, in the document regarding 1988, it is mentioned that 8 members of the US team had tested positive; however, it was covered up by their organization.

Such was the lack of trust that the World Anti Doping Agency was established .. an independent organization which aimed to do the World’s drug testing – World Anti Doping Agency.

Dennis Mitchell, another athlete in the 1988 Olympic Final, was subsequently caught for ped drugs and banned from the sport.

We now move towards the build-up to the 2000 Olympics, the first year of Linford Christie’s retirement, and the year he was caught while being tested for an indoor meeting.

He was supposedly in retirement, and it seemed to be just rewarded even if at the time he was ‘maybe’ innocent.

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The 2000 Olympic Buildup

The year 2000 found the Kansas Cannonball, Maurice Greene, exploding in all the stadiums worldwide.

His training partner Ato Boldon was close to the great man himself. Greene had captured the World Record and was the outright favorite to take the 100m title.

An expose was done on the HSI Training Group, which had the world’s top sprinters in its ranks.

During the expose, they interviewed Greene about the supplements he was taking, and he answered weakly that he wouldn’t discuss it because he was not receiving money for promoting them. Then Greene’s lawyer/manager appeared and put an end to the interview.

We now move forward. Keep in mind this expose.

Now towards the 2003 World Championships in Paris and the rumors begin to float around that things are in the pipeline for big busts.

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Drugs in Sprinting 2003 World Championships

At the 2003 World Championships in Paris, bizarre events began to take place, athletes favored for winning medals tripped over hurdles, some failed to make the finals, and those who did make the final failed to medal.

Maurice Greene was now a shadow of his former self… The new WR holder over 100m Tim Montgomery was not firing on all cylinders … and in the end, the slowest time ever was recorded for a World Championship 100m final.

And the winner had been caught for a banned substance a year before when winning the Commonwealth Games title but was let off for the substance came from his asthma pump, which he had not disclosed. The bitter taste is only slight, and Kim Collins is not the biggest built sprinter around.

In the 100m, final 2nd goes to the new Junior WR holder and 3rd unexpectantly to Darren Campbell. The great favorite Dwain Chambers finishes 4th .. causing retired 200 and 400m WR holder Michael Johnson to comment that Chambers has bulked up too much for his own good. Chambers had switched coaches from longtime coach Mike Macfarlane to Remi Korchemny, based in the USA.

Kelli White, the American sprint sensation, who has had her own life of setbacks after being slashed across the face while waiting for a train some years before, astounds the world with her brilliance in winning both the 100 and 200m titles at the Paris Games.

Sadly, a stimulant called modafinil is detected in her urine sample, and everyone begins to whisper.

Modafinil is used to combat narcolepsy, and she states her doctor prescribed it because she comes from a family of narcolepsy sufferers. Why was this not disclosed previously?

Well, because modafinil is not on the banned substance list.

  • Great.
  • Let’s move on …
  • NO .. we can’t; we now hear more news regarding the USATFA – USA Track and Field Association, which governs the US’ sport.
  • What’s that

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More Drugs in Sprinting rumors of the Paris World Champs

well … we have now got as far as an exciting World Champs, the winner of the 100m men, is under a cloud for previous encounters of the substance kind and the winner of the Women’s 100 and 200m is suffering from narcolepsy.

For good measure, the Sydney Olympic Champion over 200m is missing and had been accused of running away from the drug testers when they arrived at their training base unannounced. He fails to attend the games, and his female compatriot is a shadow of her powerful self. Pure speculation, obviously.

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Drugs in Sprinting Moving on, we have a great winner of the Men’s 400m.

Then the further murmurings occur, that up to 19 US athletes were tested positive before Sydney 2000 and were allowed to compete. The one big name that did get shot out for drugs in sprinting was CJ Hunter, the then-husband of Marion Jones. Jones divorces the man and tries to put as much distance between her and the mention of drugs.

She is a truly remarkable athlete and can’t come close to breaking the amazing 10.49 established by Flo Jo, who died very suddenly from heart failure, which was viewed by many as the after-effects of performance enhancers drug use. Oh … did we mention her season of great performances was 1988? 

So .. then whose name is on this list …

Oh no … Jerome Young … was let off for drugs in sprinting; he has just won the 400m title, and if he had been serving his sentence, he would still be suspended from competition. Oh well …

As part of Dick Pound’s [Pound is head of World Anti Doping Agency] ambition to clean up the drugs in sprinting, he needs further help from the US; however, such things are not forthcoming … The USFA seems to be a law unto itself…

The games are abuzz with certain murmurings that there is a major investigation to follow the World Anti Doping Agency.

As for White … Well …

Narcolepsy is a serious medical disorder and a key to understanding other sleep disorders.

YAWN is happy

Then it happens a 2nd American is tested for modafinil. Surely YAWN will be happy to have two athletes of such a high status to represent them. YAWN stands for Young Americans with Narcolepsy [ and is mentioned purely for humor ]
This makes the people at the top more interested in the substance Modafinil.

Also, doing the rumors before the Games was that the IAAF had struck a deal with the French authorities to raid any of the athletes’ hotel rooms during the games. Speculation again, but enough noise.

No matter what the IAAF does, they cannot stop World Anti Doping Agency as they do not fall under their jurisdiction … and USATFA can also do nothing about USADA, the American equivalent to World Anti Doping Agency.

The rumors that had athletes scurrying around on tiptoes have not hit the fan yet, but there are discussions in places that something is sure to happen soon.

Then it happens … 3 days after the close of the Games, BALCO is raided on Sept 3rd, by agents of the Internal Revenue Service, the Food and Drug Administration, the San Mateo County Narcotics Task Force, and Olympic drug-testing officials.

This is a well-orchestrated bust, and it has all the right to go through everything. All money that has changed hands and the list of clients …

It is then announced it could be due to TAX EVASION … Aaaah … the athlete’s breath again.

A year back

Now let us take a step back to a year ago. A certain athlete in America had been under a cloud of suspicion due to her lack of success at the Olympics and the World Championships. It is speculated that she doesn’t attend meetings where stringent drug testing is the order of the day. She is a middle-distance runner and is seen as the most successful American middle and distance runner since Mary Decker Slaney, Mary the one of the Zola Budd trip fame.

And incidentally, Slaney tested positive for a drug when over the age of 40 while participating in an indoor championship … she was banned for two years but still, some American institutions feel it right to have her listed on their Hall of Fame.

There are rumors abound that certain events in America will forego drug testing to have athletes break world records and then promote themselves to get better sponsorship.

This athlete in question sets a World Indoor Record and is happy to take a drug test … so that will put a rest to all the speculation about her. She took the test; you have to if you want the WR to be ratified.

Sorry, the detractors say … our suspicions are misplaced … and to crown it all, she will be attending the Paris games …

Strangely though, her performances fall off on the day of the final, and she fades over the last 100m, where her customary sprint finish would have her in a medal position.

She was there … she was tested … she set a world record.

Get over it, move on.

What happens next – BALCO

So who is BALCO .. Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative

BALCO performs blood-testing services for top athletes, analyzing trace minerals levels, and providing supplements to correct any deficiencies. They also sell a legal product called ZMA … which helps with the minerals Zinc and Magnesium … speculators say this could also be a cover so that athletes can say they go to the man for nutritional assistance. Oh .. should we mention Christie used these products

The President is Victor Conte, whose list of clients includes such star athletes Barry Bonds, Oakland Raider linebacker Bill Romanowski and Olympic sprint champion Marion Jones. Conte is also accused as the source of this drug, which will be discussed shortly.

Did we mention a rumored relationship between Maurice Greene’s training group and this company in the past? Is this the company that was supplying them the Nutritional Supplements which led to the World Record season [???]

Ok … so we now have the company at the heart of the case .. however, we are not finished … let’s start piecing things together.

In the summer, June, to be more accurate, a parcel turned up on the desk of Dr. Don Catlin at his laboratory at the University of California in Los Angeles. The parcel contained a syringe, and inside was a substance that was ‘the new designer drug’ that could not be picked up via the tests available.

If this drug is not detectable, then athletes could have their tests, and they would not have a problem, as in the case of the athlete who set the WR Indoors before June.

The syringe has been sent to him, and it had been given to an official of USADA by a coach [the coach is meant to be from an established group – more on this later] who said he wanted to come clean. They mentioned that they had information on a new strain of designer performance enhancers such as anabolic steroids, which was so powerful that athletes only had to inject themselves with a couple of drops under their tongue. It could help make them run faster, throw further, jump higher.

The drug has been identified as THG (tetrahydrogestrinone). And they now have a test to track the substance.

Now take note, this drug is not ingested in the same manner as other supplements … and then see how all those who get tested positive think they can pull the wool over the public’s eyes by stating … I didn’t know what I was taking … tut…

So there we are …….. the first athlete to be announced as testing positive is this year’s winner of the American Shot Put title, Kevin Toth … who has stated he has to know idea how the substance got into his system …

The 2nd athlete to be tested positive was Dwain Chambers …

Chambers and his coach – Remi Korchemny

Chambers’ coach, as mentioned, is Remi Korchemny. Since going to this American based coach, he has become far bulkier and thus reasons those in the sport will point a finger. The positive test has now confirmed the finger of suspicion. Chamber’ says he didn’t know he had ingested the substance. No idea how it got into his system.

Try .. you injected it under your tongue, mate .. unless there are other ways to take it … none have been presented as yet.

Now, did we mention that Remi Korchemny is also coach to Kelli White?

Now come on … wait a minute … what you are saying she was tested for Modafinil …

Yes … but she is also a client of Balco.

Tests on the American athletes have found 6 or 7 instances of Modafinil traces. OK, let’s move on.

Regina Jacobs, the 40-year-old athlete with the build of juiced up 20 years old, has been tested positive as well … The 3rd athlete to be announced.

The athlete who set the new WR Indoors has come face to face with reality …

USADA … are now testing all samples taken of the US team at the National Championships before there was the knowledge that there was a test available.

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Drugs in Sprinting  USATFA

All of a sardine, USATFA are coming across as the strictest set-up in the world and are shouting the odds that they will do everything in their power to clean up the sport … Yes, Yes.

Baldrick, a cunning plan

If this were the case in 1988 when Ben Johnson and his coach Charlie Francis stated that everyone else was doing it, we wouldn’t have half of the problem we have worldwide …

In distance running, we have a man who is being accused of juicing the Kenyans, and it is time that all the dirt is cleared out of the sport …

In cycling, the name that keeps cropping up is Michelle Ferrari, and Lance Armstrong’s name keeps popping up in association with him.

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World Anti Doping AgencyThe saga continues

As a matter of interest … did I mention that the name being bandied around as the coach who spilled the beans is being speculated as to the coach of which group …

Oh, you guessed it, HSI

Source Time-to-Run contributor

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