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Motor Skills

Sports Exercise Articles – Motor Sills CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION LAB
Submitted by Andrew Pirie 2042232
Sunday 20/6/2004
To Alison Rhodes Robinson
Sports Performance I

International Pacific College

This comes from my collection of assignments when I was in college.

 

body

nathan1

nathan2

Motor Skills

Motor Skills

Motor Skills – 1. What are the changes to HR, BP, RR, with exercise and on subsequent recovery?

Nathan‟s heart rate increased as his exercise intensity increased. It went from 96 from rest to 170 during the workout. His heart rate level off at a constant submaximal pace of 102-108 between the first and third minutes of exercise. It remained constant until he increased the pace at 4 minutes and again more significantly in the 6th minute. After exercising Nathan‟s heart rate dropped in the 1st minute from 170 to 124, and then down to a little below is starting heart rate finishing at 91.

At rest, the average Respiration Rate is 12- 15 breaths per minute. During exercise, this can increase as high as 45-50 breaths per minute. Nathan‟s breaths per minute at rest and for the first 2 minutes were 13-16 BPM, which is considered average. He started breathing more heavily at 3 minutes and maintained a BPM of 20-24 until the 6th minute. In the last minute of exercise when he increased his submaximal effort his BPM was at a high of 32 BPM. 1 minute After exercise his BPM was even higher at 36. It decreased to 28 BPM after 2 minutes and back to near normal levels at 16 BPM after 3 minutes.

Normal Blood Pressure is 120/80. During exercise, the CO increases and therefore there is more blood fired into the arteries much faster. This causes systolic pressure as high as 180mmHG while diastolic remains fairly constant. Nathan‟s Systolic pressure was 134-148 roughly during the first 6 minutes of exercise. It was hard to calculate as this was not recorded so often. In the last-minute, his systolic pressure increased to 200 as he changed the submaximal pace. After 3 minutes after exercise, it leveled off to 140.

2. Discuss the physiological reasons why each of these changes occurs?

When you begin to exercise, your heart rate increases rapidly in proportion to your exercise intensity. When the rate of work (intensity) is accurately controlled and measured (for example, on a cycle ergometer), the oxygen uptake can be predicted. Thus, expressing the rate of work or exercise intensity in terms of oxygen uptake is not only accurate but is
appropriate for comparing either different people or an individual under different circumstances.

Your heart rate increases directly as you increase your exercise intensity until you are near the point of exhaustion. As that point is approached, your heart rate begins to level off. This indicates that you are approaching your maximum value. The maximum heart is the highest heart rate value you achieve in an all-out effort to the point of exhaustion. This is a highly reliable value that remains constant from day-to-day and changes only slightly from year to year.

Motor Skills – Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure is the pressure the blood causes against the blood vessel wall as it flows through. Systolic Pressure is the pressure when the heart muscle contracts. Diastolic pressure is the pressure when the heart muscle relaxes. Blood Pressure is affected by Gender males tend to have a higher blood pressure level than females. Genetically, age, amount of exercise, time of day, diet, emotional state, and smoking also influence Blood Pressure as well as stress, fever, and body temperature.

During exercise, there are dramatic changes in the cardiovascular system. Perhaps the greatest change occurs in blood flow to exercising muscle which, under maximal conditions can increase up to 35 fold. Such a large increase in blood flow has severe consequences for blood pressure regulation, as the opening of this large circulation can result in a sudden and substantial drop in pressure.

There is an everyday analogy that is very comparable to this situation. Imagine that you are taking a shower upstairs in your bathroom when someone elsewhere in the house turns a tap on. This result is a loss of pressure in the shower, as two circulations are now open. The answer to this problem is to increase the capacity of the pump so that the pressure can be corrected. This is exactly what happens during exercise.

Respiratory System
The respiratory system provides oxygen to the blood through inspiration breathing in and removes end products such as Carbon Dioxide through breathing out. Oxygen travels downward through the Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Alveoli in order to be pumped to the muscles of the body. Carbon dioxide moves from the blood capillaries to the Alveoli and when we breathe out, the body rids itself of this waste product.

 

Motor Skills 3. Do you think the workload was light, medium or heavy? Why?

I think it was very light because Nathan‟s pulse was fairly constant 96-125 for the first 4 minutes a difference of 29. After 4 minutes Nathan‟s heart rate increased dramatically increasing from 125-170 in the last 3 minutes a difference of 45. This increased the intensity of the workout too hard levels. Also, his breathing per minute rose from 13 to 32 BPM during the workout and he was breathing more heavily one minute after the workout at 36 BPM, All in all, I would say that Nathan has had a reasonably heavy workout. But probably could have kept on going for a few more minutes.

Motor Skills  4. How could you adapt this experiment to compare your subject’s fitness with another? How would you determine who had the highest level of fitness?

By having two people each on one cycle exercycle by

running them separately for an equal amount of time on each exercycle. By recording both results and then comparing the outcome. By comparing the increase in Pulse, and by seeing whoever has the quickest decrease in pulse after exercise may have a better fitness level.

Motor Skills  Sources:

Heart Rate
btc.montana.edu/olympics/physiology/cf02.html

Blood Pressure
http://www.afpafitness.com/articles/Pressurelink.htm

Biomechanics
2004 International Pacific College Notes

Andrew Pirie

 

Motor Skills  What is it?

BMX (Biomechanics) is the study of human movement, what forces both internal and external to cause the movement to happen, and the results of forces when exerted.

Motor Skills  Why is it important?

Once you find the most effective way a body can move you can compare it with your own actions and then improve your technique.

  1. Improves your performance
  2. It gives an understanding of why things happen and how you can change to improve.
  1. Stability and Balance

 

What is the C.O.G? (Center of Gravity)What is mass use weight? What is gravity?

Center of Gravity = is the center point of the mass of an object, the point about which parts are equally balanced.

Mass = the amount of substance in a body/object

Weight = is the force of gravity (8 newtons) acting on the mass.

Gravity = Pull of Earth 9.8 newtons

 

Important Points

  1. Size of the base of support
  2. Height of C.O.G (the lower the better)
  3. Line of gravity must remain in your base if support

 

To increase stability

  1. Widen base of support
  2. Lower center of gravity
  3. Keep the line of gravity inside the base of support
  1. Motion

 

  1. Linear Motion is when all parts of the object move the same way at the same speed.
  2. Rotary Motion is motion around an Axis (Pivot point) e.g. a gymnast performing a giant circle on a high bar. The bar is the axis. The axis is external to the body.

e.g., A cricketer bowling a ball. The axis is the shape shoulder joint, from the ball’s point of view. External axis.

Momentum: Is the amount of motion a body has. It is related to speed and mass. I.e. the faster the object is moving the greater the momentum.

The faster the object is moving the greater the momentum..

Momentum is = to M X V

Transfer of Momentum: An object has mass and also velocity when it strikes another object it transfers momentum to the other object.

Friction

Rebound

Friction

This occurs when there is some movement between two surfaces.

  • Skin Friction – relation between air and surface of the bowl.
  • Decrease – smoother surface ball
  • Increase – rough surface
  • Rolling Friction – a major influence on how far the ball will travel.
  • The surface of ball – the surface of the ground, condition of the ground, footwear, type of footwear

Rebound – how high things bounce when one objects come into contact with another object. E.g. the ground or a racket.

The material ball is made of

It depends on the hardness of the ground.

  • Osmosis
  • Meiosis
  • Magnus Force
  • Top Spin
  • Side Spin


 

Learning a Motor Skill: Juggling (rev 1)

Submitted to Alison Rhodes Robinson

Sports Performance II

 By Andrew William V. Pirie

International Pacific College

 

Sports Exercise Articles – Motor Skill Learning: Juggling

In this topic, we look at what motor skills are and how we learn them with Juggling as an example.

 

What is a skill!

Skill is your ability to make your muscles and your nervous system work together to produce the right movements

Or (more technically speaking)

Skill is the learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty with the minimum outlay of time and /or energy.

 

Characteristics of a skill

  • It involves a sequence of action/movements which are reasonably complex to the individual
  • It must be learned
  • It must be practiced to be perfected
  • It is relative to the individual e.g. your skill may be considered very good when playing at a school level but very poor at the international level.

 

Simple – means easy to do, not difficult, no practice – required

 

Skillful – means the activity needs practice or many attempts before it can be performed well.

 

  1. Factors that affected my skill learning.

 

  1. Is Juggling an open or closed skill? Explain

How could you make it more open?

 

  1. What phase of learning does feel you reached?
  • cognitive
  • Associative
  • Automatic

 

How do you know you are at this stage?

  1. How did you set about learning your juggling apart at a time or the whole skill at once? explain.

 

The part at a time. I learned to juggle with my right hand which was easier first and then started recording juggling with my left more difficult hand.

  1. If you attempted to juggle with your eyes closed, what motor learning variable would be removing. Why is it important?

 

Extrinsic

  1. If you had to perform the skill in front of the class, what effect who this has on your performance if:

 

  1. a) you were a skilled performer.

Increased performance if the skill is perfected.

  1. b) you were just beginning

Decreased performance if the skill is not perfected.

 

  1. c) Explain this phenomenon

This affects the individual’s arousal levels (meaning the level of attention i.e. how awake or receptive to learning or performance they are.).

Skilled performers are more likely to thrive with crowd support and would achieve closer to optimal performance. Less skilled performers are going to too high arousal levels and feel too nervous to perform in front of crowds there not used to.

 

  1. What effect does instruction/guidance have on learning? Explain.

Feedback given by the coach and the athlete personally is the most important aspect which affects learning.  Without feedback from a coach, athletes wouldn’t know where they are going wrong and how to improve the learning of that skill.

An individual has to absorb all the information necessary to perform a skill, make sense out of it and then reorganize it and choose the correct response.

 

  1. How would you improve your learning and practice techniques next time?
  • Learning
  • Read books on juggling
  • Watch Videos on juggling
  • Observe juggling diagrams on the internet
  • Talk to more people to get advice on juggling

 

  • Practice
  • Practice with a partner (motivation)
  • Practice more frequently
  • Work on other aspects of the skill I didn’t cover (progressing to 3 balls).

 

Motor Skills Juggling Graphs

RECORD OF JUGGLING
Day 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Day 5Day 6
Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2
1013110334435
2012212452434
3101123011442
4011232313312
5002110413332
6010123123312
7010011042212
8001342413032
9000214124212
10021021344114
11011403134332
12001031113233
13010114445413
14001122211314
15111003332112
16000141224133
17100014452212
18122022343234
19000303235132
20011133442223
21002224322023
22110212232432
23001133345233
24111201231343
25211012323442
Total81623314156626873605868
Day 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Day 5Day 6
Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2Session 1Session 2
Total81623314156626873605868


Andrew is an ATFS Statiscian in Athletics with a wide range of knowledge in measurable sports. He has worked as a PSC Consultant and Research Assistant from 2013-2015, Consultant and Sprint Coach at Zamboanga Sports Academy from 2015-2017. And is current editor and chief of Pinoyathletics.info, and has recently done consultancy work for Ayala Corp evaluating the Track and Field Program. Currently, he is coaches Sprints, Middle and Jump events he is working towards his Level 3 Athletics Australia Coaching Certification in Sprints and Hurdles.

He can be contacted on [email protected]

By Andrew Pirie

Andrew is an ATFS Statiscian in Athletics with a wide range of knowledge in measurable sports. He has worked as a PSC Consultant and Research Assistant from 2013-2015, Consultant and Sprint Coach at Zamboanga Sports Academy from 2015-2017. And is current editor and chief of Pinoyathletics.info, and has recently done consultancy work for Ayala Corp evaluating the Track and Field Program. Currently, he is coaches Sprints, Middle and Jump events he is working towards his Level 3 Athletics Australia Coaching Certification in Sprints and Hurdles. He can be contacted on [email protected]

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