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Periodization for Athletes

Periodization Athlete Development for Athletics PowerPoint Presentations

Originally Published 25 October 2016.

  1. 1. Summary Presentation on Athlete Development for Athletes Dinas Zamboanga Del Sur from
  2. Periodization 2. Training by Age 3. Sprints Phases 4. Teaching Drills
  3. 2. Periodization  is the systematic planning of athletic or physical training.  The aim is to reach the best possible performance in the most important competition of the year.  It involves gradual improvements during various parts of a training program for each period.  Conditioning programs can use periodization to break up the training program into the following
  4. 3. Division of Periodization
  5. 4. Division of Periodization  Offseason (General)  preseason (specific)  In season (competition)  Postseason (recovery)  Periodization divides the year-round condition program into phases of training that focus on different goals.
  6. 5. Training Organization  Training should be organized and planned in advance of a competition or performance. It should consider the athlete’s potential, his/her performance in tests or competition, and the calendar of competition. It has to be simple, suggestive, and above all flexible as its content can be modified to meet the athlete’s rate of progress.
  7. 6. Training by Age – Long Term Development and Progression of Strength Training Source: Bompa T. and Buzzichelli C., Periodization Training for Sports – 3rd Edition, Human Kinetics, 2015
  8. 7. Speed Development – Phases
  9. 8. 5 phases and the “percent contribution” to the total race. 1. Reaction Time (1%) 2. Block Clearance (5%) 3. Speed of Efficient Acceleration (64%) 4. Maintenance of Maximum Velocity (18%) 5. Lessened Degree of Deceleration (12%)
  10. 9.  Looking at this chart, it’s no wonder why sprint coaches elect to focus on speed and acceleration work. But this doesn’t show the whole picture as one component can severely affect the next component. For example, proper block clearance sets up for proper speed of efficient acceleration
  11. 10. Reaction Time  Reaction time is measured by the time taken from the firing of the gun to the first muscular reaction performed by the sprinter.  Bad reaction time will produce a very different 100-meter race pattern with the sprinter rushing through the next phases!
  12. 11. Block Clearance 2 things come to mind. 1) You need proper biomechanics in the starting position in order to generate the greatest power to overcome inertia. 2) The greater the force applied in driving from the starting blocks by the sprinter, the greater the initial velocity produced.  The block clearance phase sets you up for the next phase.
  13. 12. Speed of Efficient Acceleration  In the 40-yard dash, the athlete accelerates to maximum velocity in as short a time as possible. This also applies for the 100 meters.  However, the longer it takes the sprinter to reach maximum velocity, the greater the potential for the sprinter to reach higher maximum velocities (which is the goal for the 100 meters, right?). Today we are seeing athletes such as Usain Bolt and Tyson Gay reaching top speeds well beyond the “traditional” 60 meters.  The word “optimal” comes to mind, where an effective acceleration phase can produce the highest maximum velocity.
  14. 13. Maintenance of Maximum Velocity  Optimizing is a popular word here.  An optimal combination of stride rate, stride length, and ground contact time will produce the highest top end speed. This topic has been discussed at lengths on this Blog.  As far as posture goes, the sprinter will be in a full upright position during this phase.
  15. 14. Lessened Degree of Deceleration  The sprinters’ ground contact time increases with fatigue. We’ve seen that on the article Ground Contact Time, Stride Length and Fatigue in the 400m.  Staying relaxed, and “staying tall” with a high vertical displacement are common terms. But a lot of coaches neglect the importance (and biomechanics) of the arms and hands. Arm action is just as important as the legs.
  16. 15. Example Workout  Warmup Sequence  Foam Roll (if available)  Hamstrings  Quads  Adductors  Abductors  Glutes  Lower back  Upper back  Jogging  Jogging  50m run 50m walk  For more advanced athletes 4×100 at 90% or 8×100 at 80%  Sprinters 100, 200, 100 Hurdles, Throwers 1-2 laps  400, 800, 400H 2-3 laps  1500 and up 3-5 laps  Wall Swings (10 on each side)  Front and Back  Side to side  Rotation Hurdle  Fire Drill with fence behind
  17. 16. Drills  (3 of each in training, 2 of each in competition)  Skipping  Toe walk  March A  March B  March C  Skip A  Skip B  Skip C  Straight Leg bound  Karioke  Butt Kick  High Knees  Bounds Height  Bounds Distance  Shuffle (each leg)  Fast Feet  Pawing  Bottle Drills (5 – 10 times each), (spacing 2 shoes, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6)  Mini Hurdles (if available)  Wind Sprints 30-50m (2-3 progressive speed)  Warm Down Sequence  Stairs 5-10 times  Extra Activity pushups, sit-ups, dips etc.  Static and Partner assisted stretching (about 10-15 mins)  Foam Rolling  Jog a lap


Periodization Athlete Development for AthleticsDinas One Day Sports Science Seminar

Coaching Clinic in Dinas, Zamboanga Del Sur. Facilitators Zamboanga Sports Academy Coaches Ian Moncada, Bap Bap, Eliezer Salinas and Andrew Pirie.

“They ask me why I teach, and I reply, ‘Where could I find such splendid company?’

There sits a statesman, strong, unbiased, wise; another Daniel Webster, silver-tongued.

A doctor sits beside him, whose quick, steady hand may mend a bone, or stem the life-blood’s flow.

And there a builder; upward rise the arch of a church he builds, wherein that minister may speak the word of God, and lead a stumbling soul to touch the Christ.

And all about, a gathering of teachers, farmers, merchants, laborers —those who work and vote and build and plan and pray into a great tomorrow.

And I may say, I may not see the church, or hear the word, or eat the food their hands may grow, but yet again I may; And later I may say, I knew him once, and he was weak, or strong, or bold or proud or gay.

I knew him once, but then he was a boy.

They ask me why I teach and I reply, ‘Where could I find such splendid company?'” – by John Wooden

Interview Tudor Bompa Development of Periodization

June 27, 2013

Tudor Bompa is known to many as the man who single-highhandedly revolutionized Western training methods.

Name your favorite strength coach and very likely he’s been strongly influenced by the work of Tudor Bompa. Learn his secrets!

By: Mike Mahler
Feb 21, 2003

Tudor Bompa
Tudor Bompa: Photo Credit (The Truestar Health Team)

After more than forty years of work in the arena of international sports.

Tudor Bompa is widely considered one of the world’s leading specialists when it comes to periodization, planning, peaking, and strength and powerlifting.

Name your favorite strength coach and very likely he’s been strongly influenced by the work of Tudor Bompa.

Like many top coaches.

Tudor Bompa began as an athlete himself and competed as a rower in the 1956 Olympic Games.

As a coach (if one can even use that limiting term to describe him), Tudor Bompa has worked with athletes in eleven Olympic Games and World Championships and has helped create four gold medals and 22 national champions.

He’s presented his training theories is over 30 countries.

In other words, this guy knows his stuff! Currently, Tudor Bompa is a full-time professor at York University in Toronto Ontario.

Luckily, he took the time to sit down to an interview with Mike Mahler.


Testosterone: How did you first get interested in strength training?

Tudor Bompa: My athletic background is in track and field, and later on I got into rowing and cross country skiing.

I was amongst the first athletes to incorporate a great deal of strength training into training for skiing.

That was back in the early 1960s! My improvements were so visible that many other competitors were aghast.

Because of my gains in upper and lower-body strength, I was able to use the skating technique for many parts of the race.

Equally important was the use of my superior force in the arms.

T: How did you first begin coaching the things you learned as an athlete?


1964 Olympic Champion Yelena Gorchakova


T: You’ve written a great deal about periodization and its application in strength training. In your terms, what exactly is periodization?


Milo of Croton Carrying a Bull is a prime example of Anatomical Adaptation.


T: What are some of the most common mistakes that athletes make with regard to training?


T: Not true?



Strength and Hypertrophy number of reps

T: Okay, what’s another major mistake you see?


T: Give us an example of what you mean.


T: Good point. Any other mistakes you see that drive you nuts?


T: Are there any strength-training exercises that all athletes should be doing?


Using steps for Toe Raises

T: How about abs?


T: What are some of the techniques you’ve used to blast through training plateaus?


  1. Design a good periodization program with phases of maximum strength and phases of power training, where the objective is to increase the firing rate of fast-twitch muscles. In my strength training book, Periodization of Training for Sports, I discuss that in detail.
  2. If one has a longer preparatory (pre-season) phase, several phases of maximum strength and power could be alternated. This alternation of maximum strength with power would certainly have the probability of breaking the plateau.
  3. Under normal conditions, I wouldn’t suggest a maximum-strength phase for longer than six weeks. It’s quite stressful to cope with. However, if an athlete has reached a plateau, I’d use a nine-week long maximum strength phase. Under these conditions, the muscles are stimulated at much higher levels than before.
  4. Use more eccentric (negative) contraction techniques. Eccentric contractions require a much higher tension in the fast-twitch muscles. Eccentric training shouldn’t be used before the athletes have a better background. Unfortunately, many coaches can hardly wait to use everything they know; in this way, they themselves are contributing to reaching a plateau.
The model of a Plateau

T: So training and performance plateaus are often the coach’s fault?


T: What about altering tempo? For example, taking more time in the concentric and eccentric ranges?



T: What role does nutrition play in recovery and do you provide nutrition and supplementation advice for athletes?



T: Fair enough. I’ve read that in Bulgaria, Olympic athletes train five times a day, seven times a week and that Russian power-lifters bench press up to 21 times a week.

What do you think of this training frequency and would these types of programs be beneficial to a natural trainer?



T: What books do you recommend on strength training — besides yours, of course?

Who are the best strength training coaches out there?


T: Do you feel that some or most strength coaches have a tendency to make their programs too general at times and too complicated at other times?


T: Give us an example of that, please.


T: A “cocktail” strength and conditioning coach, huh? Interesting term. Any other categories of coaches you notice?


T: That makes total sense. By the way, do you have any new projects in the works?


Dr. Mauro Di Pasqualle

T: Thanks for taking the time to chat with us, Tudor.

TB: For more information on Tudor Bompa, go to

By Andrew Pirie

Andrew was elected Vice President of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians in 2020 after being a member for 7 years. He has worked as a PSC Consultant and Research Assistant from 2013-2015, Consultant, and Sprint Coach at Zamboanga Sports Academy from 2015-2017. Current editor and chief of, and has recently done consultancy work for Ayala Corp evaluating the Track and Field Program. Coaches Sprints, Middle and Jump events he is working towards his Level 3 Athletics Australia Coaching Certification in Sprints and Hurdles. He can be contacted on [email protected] You can find more information on Coaching here

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